Hospice and Palliative Care: Signs and Symptoms of Approaching Death
The hospice team's goal is to help prepare you for some things that might occur close to the time of death. Although we can never predict exactly when a terminally ill person will die, we know when the time is getting close by a combination of signs and symptoms. Not all of these signs will appear at the same time, and some may never appear at all. All of the signs described are ways the body prepares itself for the final stages of life.
Your loved one may sleep more and might be more difficult to awaken. Hearing and vision may decrease.
There may be a gradual decrease in the need for food and drink. Your loved one will say he/she doesn't have an appetite or isn't hungry. This is the body's natural response to the dying process. It is telling the person that eating and drinking are no longer helpful -- that the body can't use food and fluid properly anymore.
What to do: Allow your loved one to choose when and what to eat or drink, even if this means little or nothing will be taken in. Liquids often are more easily tolerated than solid food.
What to do: Remind him/her of the time and the day and who is there with them. Be calm and reassuring when talking to him/her.
Hands, arms, feet, and legs may become cooler, and the skin may turn a bluish color with purplish splotches.
What to do: Use blankets for warmth. Do not use an electric blanket or heating pad.
Irregular breathing patterns may occur. There might be a space of time (10-30 seconds) when there will be no breathing at all. This is called apnea. There may be phlegm or increased secretions in the throat that are not painful, but are difficult to clear with a weakened cough and often bothersome more to the caregivers.
What to do: Position the person on his/her side with head elevated.
Contact your hospice team or doctor or nurse at any time for questions or to discuss changes.