Oligodendrogliomas are uncommon brain tumors. They make up about 3 percent of all brain tumors. They are usually found in men in their mid-30s to mid-40s, but they can develop at any age, including during childhood.
Because brain tumors are much less common in children than adults, little research has been done to explain why they happen or how best to treat them. For this reason, doctors might recommend participation in a clinical trial as part of the treatment plan.
Symptoms of brain tumors depend on where in the brain the tumor is located. For example, if a tumor develops in the region that controls speech, the child's speaking would be affected.
These are possible symptoms of an oligodendroglioma:
Oligodendrogliomas and their treatment may lead to the following complications:
Return of the cancer
Disabilities such as impaired speech or vision, depending on the location of the tumor
Changes in development and growth, usually as a result of radiation
Doctors typically take a medical history and do a physical examination that may include a neurological exam to look at vision, hearing, speech, thinking, and motor skills. The tests conducted will usually focus on a child's age-appropriate abilities.
The doctor might also want to order imaging tests to find out more about the tumor and its location. MRIs or CT scans are likely to be included.
These other tests might also be done:
Grade of tumor
The tumor will be graded on a scale from I to IV. Grade I means that the cancer cells have only barely started to grow, whereas grade IV means that they are fairly advanced in their growth. Grades II and III describe progression toward advanced cancer.
Doctors may also use terms such as "low grade" to describe slower-growing cancer tumors or "high grade" to describe faster-growing tumors.
Treating brain tumors is complicated because of their location. As a result, treatment may involve many different approaches:
Steroids, which help reduce the swelling around the tumor.
Anticonvulsant medication to help control any seizures.
Shunt to drain any fluid that has built up in or around the brain.
Surgery to remove part or all of the tumor.
Chemotherapy, a drug-based treatment to kill the cancer cells. Sometimes a combination of chemotherapy drugs is needed; currently, researchers are trying to determine if chemotherapy can help children avoid radiation.
Radiation, a treatment with high-energy beams often used in combination with surgery to help control the tumor and improve the surgery's chances for success. In some cases, chemotherapy may be combined with radiation for a better outcome.
Imaging tests will be used after surgery and during treatment to check on the tumor's progress. After treatment, a child will need follow-up care in subsequent years to make sure the cancer has not returned.